Immunization has played a significant role in the reeducation of morbidity and mortality of bacterial and viral diseases where health services are well developed. However, in countries where health services are not well developed, childhood infectious diseases which are preventable by immunization remain to be the major killers and causes of illness among children. Some of these infectious diseases are shown below.
Measles is an acute highly communicable viral childhood disease. Signs and symptoms of the disease are fever and rash appearing over the body on the third and fourth day beginning on the face. There is no drug which affects measles virus. Children need bed rest and antipyretics such as asprine ace cording to age. Health education to parents especially to mothers on immunization of children against the disease will prevent the disease.
This is a highly infectious disease involving the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. It causes the most severe and prolonged weight loss. Signs and symptoms of the disease are irritating cough, fever and convulsions due to cerebral involvement. Sedation helps the affected child recover. Health education to parents especially to mothers to immunize their children against the disease is an effective preventive measure.
It is an acute disease induced by toxins of the tetanus bacillus growing without oxygen at the site of an injury. Signs and symptoms of the disease are painful muscular contraction of the neck muscle, rigidity, fever and muscular spasm. Nursing the patient in a quiet darkened room, sedating patient, preventing respiratory complications, and maintaining nutrition reduces mortality, it is also important to give antibiotics and tetanus antitoxin. The disease can be prevented by immunizing the children against the disease and by giving health education to mothers.
An acute infections bacterial disease of tonsils, pharynx, larynx or nose occasionally of other mucus membrane or skin. Patches of grayish membrane, moderately sore threat, Cervical lymph nodes, marked swelling and punched out ulcers are signs and symptoms of the disease. Treatment for diphtheria includes the administration of anti-toxin and the maintenance of a satisfactory airway. Active immunization with diphtheria toxid is an effective preventive measure.